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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    鸦片战争背景【图】

    时间:2019-10-02 08:12:47编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“鸦片战争背景【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

      清道光二十(1840)至二十二年,英国对中国发动的侵略战争。因战争的导火线是英国强行向中国推销鸦片,故称鸦片战争?!?br />  鸦片战争前夕,中国封建社会已进入衰落末世。清王朝政治腐败,经济凋敝,科技落后,武备废弛,思想文化领域“万马齐暗”,阶级矛盾不断激化,国势阽危。其时,欧美资本主义国家迅速发展起来;特别是英国掌握了资本主义世界的霸权,成为奔走全球、寻找殖民地、侵略中国的急先锋。在这历史关键时刻,清政府仍奉行闭关主义,结果使中国孤立于世界历史前进的潮流之外,越来越落后。中国人,特别是清朝封建统治者对外部世界茫然无知。为了掠夺中国,使之纳入资本主义世界市场,英国企图用“商品重炮”轰开中国大门??墒?,由于当时中国社会自给自足的自然经济占主导地位,英国工业品在中国很难扩大其销售市场。相反,中国的丝、茶出口却越来越多,中国对外贸易一直处于出超的有利地位。为了改变贸易逆差,英国政府遂以“特殊商品”鸦片作为撬开中国大门的武器。清乾隆三十八年(1773)英属印度政府确立了鸦片侵华政策。乾隆三十八年和嘉庆二年(1797),英属印度政府又先后给予英国东印度公司在印度的鸦片专卖和制造权。于是,以印度为基地向中国走私鸦片的规模不断扩大,由乾隆三十二年的1000箱,到道光十八年猛增至4万余箱。由于英、美鸦片贩子的破坏和贿赂,清朝官员的腐败受贿,使得清廷累次发布的禁烟法令成了一纸空文,非法的鸦片走私屡禁不止,恶性发展起来。罪恶的鸦片走私给英国带来了暴利,给中国带来严重灾祸:清朝统治阶级更加腐化,更加残酷地压榨人民;中国对外贸易由顺差转为逆差,白银大量外流;造成金融恐慌,市场混乱,国内工商业日趋凋敝;严重侵害了中国人民的身体和精神,摧残了中国社会生产力;封建统治?;朊褡逦;欢霞由?。面对鸦片流毒泛滥成灾,反对鸦片侵略的斗争日益高涨,清朝统治阶级内部形成了弛禁派与严禁派。许乃济等反对严禁,公开奏请弛禁鸦片?;凭糇?、林则徐等鲜明地提出严禁鸦片的主张,形成一个鸦片非禁不可的全国性舆论。严禁派逐渐占了上风。道光十八年十一月十五日(12月31日),道光帝任命林则徐为钦差大臣,驰赴广州,主持禁烟。


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