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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    中法战争:新史料,新探索【图】

    时间:2019-10-02 08:12:46编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“中法战争:新史料,新探索【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    1883年至1885年间的中法战争长期以清政府“不败而败”的形象示人。这场战争切断了清越之间的传统宗藩关系,加剧了清帝国西南边疆?;?。清廷对法政策在和与战之间摇摆不定,不同派系的权力之争引发甲申易枢,对晚清枢机格局产生深远影响。

    不过,与近二十多年学界在鸦片战争、甲午战争等领域取得的突破相比,中法战争研究声光暗淡。就史料积累方面而言,除当事人的奏折、公牍和年谱外,前辈学人编纂整理的《中国近代史资料丛刊·中法战争》《中法越南交涉档》《中法战争文献汇编》和《中国海关和中法战争》等资料集对推动相关研究,皆有一时之功。除此之外,法文史料的价值自不待言。邵循正先生1935年出版的《中法越南关系始末》就因广泛援引法国外交文书而被奉为中法战争研究的经典之作。台湾学者龙章同样参阅了大批法文史料写成的《越南与中法战争》一书也具有重要的学术价值。不过,目前已有资料集以中文史料为主,多从清政府的视角展现中法冲突的酝酿与演变。法国本土档案馆馆藏资料的整理、翻译和利用严重滞后,制约了中法战争研究的广度和深度。1999年至2006年,张振鹍先生主编《中国近代史资料丛刊续编·中法战争》第三、四、五册开始辑入法国外交部和海军部档案,一定程度上缓解了中法战争研究中法文史料的不足。时隔十一年,中华书局于2017年出版了最新一辑《中国近代史资料丛刊续编·中法战争》第六册(以下简称《中法战争续编》[六]),为学界提供了不可多得的珍贵史料,有利于研究者从法方的视角考察中法战争相关史事。

    《中法战争续编》(六)以时间为序,收录了法国海军部档案和外交部档案共831件,时间跨度从1884年5月1日至12月31日。军事类档案包括法军在越南东京、福建马尾、台湾基隆和淡水的作战报告、兵力配备、物资补给等情况。外交类档案包括法方代表与李鸿章、曾国荃的谈判经过、法国众议院的相关决议、法国政府对美英两国调?;疃姆从?、中国沿海和内地省份的反教活动等。编译者采取原文照录的方式,对已刊《中法战争》中省略过多、零碎不全的部分史料进行补全。除此之外,本书中绝大部分资料均系首次披露。这批珍贵史料不仅有助于学界对中法战争期间诸多问题的考辩,而且能够从中探索新的论域,试举几例如下。

    一、《李福协定》签字后的“撤兵节略”问题

    1880年之前中法围绕越南控制权的争夺便已现端倪。学界一般以1883年12月14日法军进攻屯驻越南北部山西地区的清军和黑旗军作为中法战争的开端,以法国海军中校福禄诺和李鸿章于1884年5月11日在天津草拟《李福协定》(亦称《中法天津简明条约》)作为战争第一阶段结束的标志?!独罡Pā非┦鸷?,由于中法对撤军时间的理解不同,双方在越南北圻观音桥一带爆发军事冲突,中法谈判失败,战端再起。因此《李福协定》及其背后中法之间的分歧一直受到研究者的重视?!独罡Pā返谖蹇罘ㄎ谋竟娑?,自签字之日起,“三个月内”双方各派全权大臣详定正式条约,商定通商、划界和撤军事宜。而中文本将“三个月内”误译为“三个月后”。1884年6月,法军试图接管谅山地区的清军阵地时,双方在观音桥发生激战,法军强攻无果。事后双方均指责对方破坏《李福协定》。法方强调,签字完毕时,福禄诺曾交给李鸿章一纸“撤兵节略”,规定6月6日法军开始接管清军控制下的谅山、高平等地,清军最迟应于6月26日前撤回广西。李鸿章当时并未反对。总理衙门就此事质询李鸿章,李鸿章坚称未曾应允所谓的“撤兵节略”。总理衙门也表示《李福协定》并无附件,撤军问题本应在中法双方签订正式条约之时才能确定。至此,中法双方关系破裂,战争进入第二阶段。

    尽管总理衙门在观音桥之战后承认《李福协定》中文本存在误译,但是“撤兵节略”仍是中法战争期间的一则悬案。论者或认为法人诡诈蛮横蓄意制造事端,或指出李鸿章畏惧言官弹劾隐瞒节略不报。近年有研究者提及一则直接证据,即1921年福禄诺在法国某杂志(RevueDesDeuxMondes)上刊出的一则回忆,自称节略上原已注明撤军日期,只不过交给李鸿章之时,被他本人用铅笔涂抹。巧合的是,2017年第4期《近代史研究》刊发张振鹍先生的一篇札记《福禄诺节略与中法战争两个阶段的转变——从〈泰晤士报〉的一篇报道说起》,考订节略风波系李鸿章将撤兵日期涂抹,反诬是福禄诺所为,并有意向《泰晤士报》记者透露此事,以制造舆论逃避责任。关于节略被篡改一事已有截然对立的观点?!吨蟹ㄕ秸唷罚┦章技冈蚺读恕俺繁诼浴毕附诘男率妨现档霉刈?。

    《李福协定》仅规定清政府“立即”(中文本译为“即行”)从越南北部撤军,但并未开列具体时间表。值得注意的是,5月11日中法代表签署《李福协定》之前,福禄诺致海军和外交部的电文中从未提及“撤兵节略”之事,也未曾提及在《李福协定》之外另拟“撤兵节略”的谈判策略。直到5月18日,福禄诺才首次在致海军及殖民地部长的电文中提到他于5月17日向李鸿章递交了一份“撤军节略”,并附上全部内容(参见第59页)。具体情景存在两个版本。其一,在6月1日致海军及殖民地部长裴龙的电报中,福禄诺绘声绘色地描述了他与李鸿章之间的对话。李鸿章不同意“撤兵节略”,认为其中规定的撤兵期限太短,具有最后通牒的性质,有伤朝廷体面。而福禄诺自称未作让步,最后“李鸿章向我肯定他保证把命令传达下去”(参见第137页)。其二,中法重燃战火后,在7月21日致法国外交部政治司司长毕乐的信中,福禄诺回忆中法交涉退兵一事的更多细节。双方对话如下:“‘这么说,阁下接受了我在公函中确定的日期,并由您承担责任,负责以适当的办法使北京同意在这些期限内把中国军队撤退完毕啰?’‘是的?!芏郊岫ǖ卮鸬馈保ú渭?43页)。对话结束后,福禄诺故意通过天津电报局以明码的方式将此信息发给法国海军的米乐将军,“一刻钟之后,李鸿章就拿到这一电报,亲眼证实该电报与我交给他的那份公函的内容完全相符”(参见第343页)。上述内容皆与1921年福禄诺的回忆存在不小的出入,个中细节需要与其他资料作进一步比勘。如果1921年的回忆为真,那么福禄诺事后提交给法国政府的报告中为何隐瞒涂改日期一事?从福禄诺发给茹费理的电报来看,福禄诺并非好战派,而且对顺利签署《李福协定》结束战争颇为得意,他的种种邀功之举甚至引来法国驻华公使巴德诺的嫉妒。目前尚无法看出福禄诺破坏中法和谈究竟能给他自身带来何种益处。如果福禄诺1921年的回忆不实,那么李鸿章为何在签署《李福协定》之后,先接受“撤兵节略”,以致中法矛盾不可收拾,遂又制造和散布福禄诺涂抹节略一事为自己开脱?有研究者提到,李鸿章一则无权命令驻越清军后撤,只得私下向前线淮军旧部暗示准备撤退,二则不敢上奏清廷降旨撤兵,因为清政府刚刚下令军队“扼扎原处”。不过,此说未触及李鸿章欺上瞒下的真正顾虑。因此仍有必要继续检讨李鸿章在中法谈判中的责任问题,尤其是甲申易枢前后清廷的权力格局对李鸿章外交决策的不同影响。

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