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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    基隆与沪尾:揭秘中法战争中的台湾战场【图】

    时间:2019-10-01 13:52:01编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“基隆与沪尾:揭秘中法战争中的台湾战场【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    因特殊的战略地位与丰富的煤炭资源,台湾成为1884年中法战争的重要战场之一。台湾战场主要集中在基隆和沪尾两处。在全体将士的浴血奋战与大陆军民的支援下,台湾战场取得了难得的胜利。

    基隆与沪尾:揭秘中法战争中的台湾战场

    基隆战役

    基隆旧称“鸡笼”,1875年沈葆祯奏请建台北府时提议在此设厅,称“基隆厅”,自此渐用此名?;∶禾看⒘亢芊岣?,煤与地面几乎成水平线,某些地方甚至只要将植物层扒开便见煤炭。丰富的煤炭资源刺激着法国人的贪欲和野心,1884年6月26日,法国编成远东舰队,以海军中将孤拔为司令,海军少将利士比为副司令。根据法国政府的指示,驻华公使巴德诺命令远东舰队摧毁基隆炮台,并夺取基隆煤场。对基隆守军,法国人采取了军事威压与政治诱降相结合的两手策略。在基隆外围,他们部署了3艘军舰,舰上有船员588人,炮47门。军事安排妥当后,利士比派副官上岸,妄图劝降炮台守军,遭断然拒绝。8月5日,恼羞成怒的利士比下令炮击基隆。

    当时,主持台湾军务的是刘铭传。刘铭传是淮军名将,安徽合肥人。1884年6月26日,也就是法国人孤拔被任命为新组建的远东舰队司令的同一天,清朝廷下诏,命刘铭传督办台湾军务。临危受命后,刘铭传由上?;俺寺帜舷?,于7月16日抵基隆,次日便巡视炮台防务。刘铭传此前虽未实际办过海防,但因军事阅历丰富,加之在家赋闲时可能阅读过有关西方文献,赴任前又从李鸿章等人那里接受了一些海防知识,所以稍作观察,他就敏锐地发现了基隆防务的一些重大缺陷,并立即着手加以整顿改进。经过一番调整,基隆前线的防御能力已比刘铭传到来之前有所加强。

    8月5日上午8时,法舰开始猛烈炮击基隆炮台,炮台守军营官姜鸿胜督炮还击。1小时后,基隆炮台前壁被轰毁,火药库也中炮起火。炮台既毁,姜鸿胜被迫率部撤出。法国海军陆战队200人在炮火掩护下登陆,占领了基隆炮台和附近高地。两军炮战很快结束,清军炮台全部化为乌有,刘铭传称清军伤亡弁勇60多人,法军却无一伤亡,利士比向上司报告称:“我未折一兵一卒,却获得如此辉煌的战绩,内心甚为欢喜?!?/p>

    战斗打响时刘铭传正在淡水,得知法军递交劝降书后他立即赶回基隆,途中双方已经开战。刘铭传深知在岸边不可与法军争锋,必须诱敌登陆,凭借天时地利,方可折其凶锋,遂令海滨坚守各营移至后山以避敌炮。只留福宁镇总兵曹志忠一营隔着小山近海驻守。

    基隆之役陆上最激烈的战斗是曹志忠部与留在高地上的法军进行的搏斗。据称,两军交锋前,一部分法军在曹志忠营北山上筑营,另一部分约200人直逼曹志忠营地,在炮舰协助下向守军发动疯狂进攻。曹志忠一面坚守本营,一面亲督王三星等率200人出战。刘铭传迅速命令记名提督章高元、苏得胜率领百余人进击法军左翼,同时派游击邓长安率亲军小队60人绕攻法军右翼。曹志忠等目睹法军三面被围困,士气大振。法军见情势不妙,连忙趁包围圈尚未合拢之际,匆忙撤回军舰,整个战斗落下帷幕。

    顷刻之间,基隆炮台被法国人轰击得荡然无存,清军的防守为何如此不堪一击?《申报》1884年8月11日社论《论鸡笼失守事》对“鸡笼一区,练勇共有六营,炮台四座,兵力亦不为薄”,却未能有效抵御法军而百思不得其解。其实,这4座炮台中,真正能发挥重大作用的仅有1座,其余3座是刘铭传抵台后仓促兴建的,战斗爆发时尚未完工,且其中1座新建炮台并无炮位。即便能发挥作用的这座炮台,设计也不合理,构筑也不科学。显然,主要靠这样一座炮台对付敌人的3艘战舰数十门大炮是极为困难的。另外,中法两军武器装备相差巨大。两军炮位相差数倍,而且法军大炮口径大者达24厘米,威力甚大;舰上有先进的炮座、炮塔,大炮回旋自如。清军大炮中,部分是尚未启用的国产土炮,劣势明显。武器固然不是决定战争胜负的唯一因素,但在一定场合下往往对战争胜负起着重要作用。再有,法军为准确轰毁基隆炮台提前作了充分准备。事先防务不周,任敌入港,岸上武器不足,装备不良,加上台湾孤悬海外,法军的封锁使大陆援台经常受阻,如此等等,无一不制约着基隆的防御能力。

    基隆与沪尾:揭秘中法战争中的台湾战场

    基隆煤矿

    法军凭借炮舰的威力虽炸平了基隆沿岸防御工事,并顺利派陆战队登陆,占领了有利地势,但为什么他们并未如愿夺取基隆市区和矿山呢?刘铭传布防有方,指挥得当;守军机智勇敢,顽强抵抗自然是两个主要原因。所以,外国学者对中法战争中清军在台湾战场表现的评价远远高于其他战场,“这大部分应归功于刘铭传的精明的准备工作和几位淮军军官的指挥才干?!保ā督G胖泄砬迨贰罚┐送?,法军轻敌、对基隆清军实力估计不足也是重要原因。因此,利士比在给孤拔的信中说:“如以我们现有的有限军力而想占领市街和矿山,乃属愚妄之举?!?/p>

    其实,就作战经过和双方的伤亡来看,首次基隆保卫战并不是一场规模很大的战斗。关于双方的伤亡,刘铭传在《敌陷基隆炮台我军复破敌营获胜折》里写道:“我军一鼓登山,当破敌营,夺获洋枪数十杆,帐房十余架,并获其二纛,斩首一级。探报法兵伤亡百余人。逐北至船边始返。我军伤亡才数人?!保ā读踝乘喙嘁椤?,第170页)不过,据法国原始档案的详细记载,此役法军死2人,伤10人,且全为士兵,并无一人是刘铭传所说的“法酋”、“兵头”。综合考量,似乎法国人的记载更为可信。平心而论,首次基隆之役中清军的损失远远超过法军,清军虽然把登陆的法军赶下了海,保住了基隆,但胜利的代价无疑太沉重了。从这个意义上说,清军在这次战役中谈不上什么大捷,只是取得一般的胜利而已。南洋大臣曾国荃“基隆胜负相当”的评论比较切合实际,李鸿章说“基隆我军获小胜”的说法也比较客观公正。但在当时的历史背景下,中国军队首战告捷,无疑有着重大的意义和影响?;∈渍礁娼荻越恿О?、苦苦支撑的清政府是一剂最有力、最及时的强心针,大大增强了清政府抗法的信心、决心与勇气,另外,这场胜利还沉重打击了法军的骄悍气焰,大挫其士气。

    败走基隆的法国人怎肯善罢甘休,很快他们就又回来了。同年10月1日早晨6时,法舰炮击基隆狮球岭。随后,法国登陆部队在舰炮掩护下,换乘小艇向仙洞山海岸发起登陆冲击。章高元、陈永隆率部实施火力反击,双方激战两个多小时,法军改从山头迂回,章高元等率部退出山口,继续抵抗。上午9时,法军占领仙洞山,即以山顶为据点,与海面上的舰队配合,以更为猛烈的炮火轰击清军阵地。此时,大清将士已在炎瘴溽湿的酷暑中坚守了两个多月,战斗力受到很大影响,但在法国侵略者面前,依然斗志旺盛,顽强搏战至黄昏。正在全力相持之际,更为重要、防守能力更强的沪尾地区告急,形势更趋严重。权衡再三,刘铭传决定撤离基隆,驰援沪尾,实际上是主动放弃了基隆。

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