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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    中法战争 近代化之父刘铭传如何保台湾【图】

    时间:2019-09-29 08:20:44编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“中法战争 近代化之父刘铭传如何保台湾【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    核心内容:1883年12月,中法战争爆发,法国组建了以孤拔为司令的远东舰队,兵分两路,直指福建和台湾?;聪到炝趺谔ㄍ寤橹烙?,取得了驰名中外的“淡水大捷”。持续了一年三个月中法战争结束了,这是晚清少见的对外战争的胜利,法国茹费理政府垮台。1885年10月12号,台湾正式建省,刘铭传出任首任的巡抚。七年中,他立下卓越功勋,被誉为台湾近代化之父。

    凤凰卫视2月8日《凤凰大视野》,以下为文字实录:

    解说:大潜山名不见经传,山脚下的刘老圩却煊赫一时。当地人都知道,这是一代风云人物刘铭传的故居。

    公元1884年4月,此时的刘铭传正在杭州西湖之畔,幽游林下,诗酒会友。三年多前,因给朝廷上了个《铸造铁路以图自强折》,无端遭到顽固派激烈地反对和攻击,让他郁闷不已。一气之下,干脆径自返乡,再次过起了怡然自得的赋闲生活。

    此时的大清王朝,适值多事之秋,战争的阴霾已深深笼罩在南中国海上空。法国人继攻占越南的山西、北宁之后,大有把战火烧到中国沿海和本土的势头。4月13日,法舰“伏尔达”号公然窜至台湾基隆口岸,绘制地图,伺机侦探,“借端挑衅”。八天之后,上谕颁发,刘铭传临危授命,应召出山。这一次,对手绝非等闲之辈,狂傲不羁的刘麻子能和船坚炮利的法国人一比高低吗?骁勇善战的他又该如何应对法军那咄咄逼人的进攻呢?

    窦文涛:欢迎收看《凤凰大视野》,上周咱们一连五集讲淮军的故事,本周呢,继续讲述近代史上这段传奇?;八?9世纪60年代,越南,这跟中国山水相连、唇齿相依的越南,没安宁日子了,怎么说?法国人,这大棒政策是屡屡见效,先是强迫越南割让以西贡为中心的南方大片土地。而后,又相继攻陷越南的北方重镇河内,还有首都顺化。越南在历史上一直对中国是朝贡称臣的,这时候眼瞅着就要亡国的灭顶之灾了,所以就多次向它的宗主国,清廷求援。清廷当时采取的叫保藩固边的政策,所以下令前线的滇、桂军,驻防越南的北圻地区。其中呢,这桂军的统领黄桂兰本是淮军将领。

    1883年12月,法军水陆并进,直扑越南的山西省城,中法军队在相互对峙一年多以后,终于正式开战。

    解说:战争一开始,法国人就频频得手,清军先折山西,再败北宁,消息传来,举国哗然。

    姜鸣(近代史学家):北宁战役是在1884年的3月上旬爆发的,清军伤亡了一千多人,黄桂兰也因战败以后在谅山服毒自尽。清政府震怒之下,将广西巡抚徐延旭、云南巡抚唐炯革职拿问。然后,派署里云南巡抚潘鼎新赴广西来筹办边防事务。

    解说:1884年6月上旬,法军在冒失鬼杜森尼中校的率领下,奉命向北推进,23日,到达谅山以南的观音桥,进入清军防区?!肮垡羟攀录笔怪蟹ㄕ绞卵杆偕?。三天后,法国组建了以孤拔为司令的远东舰队,兵分两路,直指福建和台湾。

    何平立(上海政法学院教授):法国当时它的战略是公开的,是明确的,从法国的新闻界、报界一直到法国的首相,都公开地叫嚣要“据地为质”。它这什么意思呢?就是占了一个地方作为担押品,向你清政府进行谈判,讨价还价。最后法军的占领目标选在台湾。

    解说:台海局势顿时岌岌可危,就在这个结骨眼上,隐居14年之久的刘铭传终于出场了。

    刘铭传,合肥西乡人,幼年因出天花脸上留下麻点,加上兄弟排行为六,便有了“刘六麻子”的绰号,别看他长的短小精悍,个性却很生猛。李鸿章对刘铭传恩宠有加,格外器重,刘铭传也的确不负厚望,出道仅三年,即因战功从副将、总兵升至直隶提督,赏穿黄马褂。但大清朝的官场历来重文轻武,刘麻子对此一直耿耿于怀,几次浩然归里,身心惧疲固然不假,迟迟当不上封疆大吏才真正让他感到窝心和尴尬。

    张研(中国人民大学教授):刘铭传很快就做到了提督,提督是什么呢?提督现在就是我们现在省军区的司令,这到头了这就。所以为什么刘铭传一直在那闹,他不愿意当这武职,当武职施展不了他的抱负。

    解说:1870年6月,“天津教案”平息后,刘铭传受命以钦差大臣督办陕西军务,并获“专折奏事”的特权,明眼人看得出,李鸿章的这一举荐,是为他下一步出任陕西巡抚铺平道路??梢氖?,在此之前湘系大佬,原闽浙总督左宗棠,同样被委以钦差大臣的身份督办西北军务。清廷如此安排,其意不言而喻。

    孔祥吉(美国哈佛大学教授):当时这个,军机首辅醇亲王和慈禧他们在谈话过程中,他们有时写成书信的方式讲,他说我们对这两个淮系和湘系,不能够说就支持哪一个,我们两派都要支持。他让淮系和湘系形成了一个叫双塔插云之势,这样他们两个由于互相矛盾、互相争夺,我们居中很容易驾驭。

    解说:两人在陕甘任上积不相能、互相攻讦。结果被清廷各打五十大板,眼看封疆无望,刘麻子以“脑痛欲裂,坐卧难安”为由,决然引退,回到家乡一呆就是14年。有趣的是,这对势如水火的老冤家,在保家卫国方面反倒惊人地一致,彼此都立下了最卓越的功勋,一个在西北收复伊犁,一个在东南抗法保台,至今为国人所赞不绝口。

    窦文涛:1884年的夏天,那个战争气氛好喧嚣,压得人喘不过气,因为中法战争的形势不断恶化,朝廷就决定再起用刘铭传,并且正式委任刘铭传以巡抚督衔办台湾的军务。7月里的一天,这刘铭传肩负重任,从天津悄悄去上海,他这一来,马上就各方关注,法国高度紧张,密切监视行踪,可是呢,让人觉得奇怪的是,刘铭传在上海期间,叫连日置酒高会,整天逍遥自在,这个刘麻子葫芦里卖的什么药?刘铭传到上海以后,五一会儿说某日某日的赴台,一会儿又说要是谈判好了我就不去了,这个都是为了迷惑对方,当然,法国这个远东舰队司令孤拔,也不信他说的这一套,一直都在吴淞口外的洋面上,部署对刘铭传这个拦击。但是呢,你部署归部署,你掌握不了他的行踪,他对刘铭传这样的百战名将,也是丝毫不敢掉以轻心。

    法军是劳师远道而来,那它付出的代价将是惨重的。

    解说:1884年7月16日,刘铭传在成功摆脱法国人的盯梢后,抵达基隆。此时,距离法军的进攻只剩下20天的时间,战争已迫在眉睫。

    刘庆(军事科学院研究员):当时,清政府和法国人一直在谈判,法国人勒索巨额赔款,但清政府拒绝了他这个要求,于是,法国侵略者就采取了“据地为质”的作战计划,把他的海军分成两部分,一部分由孤拔率领进攻福州,也就是我们所说的马尾。另一部分由他的舰队副司令利士比率领,去进攻基隆。

    解说:8月3日,利士比指挥的四艘战舰驶至基隆???。这个盛气凌人的海军少将送来了劝降书,清军置之不理。恼羞变怒的利士比随即下达了进攻命令。

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