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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    伽利略的手指和牙齿被发现【图】

    时间:2019-05-07 09:04:21编辑:zl001

    原标题:"伽利略的手指和牙齿被发现【图】"的相关资料分享。 - 来源:历史啦- 编辑:coco!

    位于意大利佛罗伦萨的科学史博物馆近日表示,将近300年前从天文学家伽利略手上切割下来的两根手指“重又现身”,一同现身的还有伽利略的一颗牙齿。1个多世纪前,有人得以最后见到伽利略的这两根手指和牙齿,此后就从公众视野失踪。这两根手指和牙齿不久将向公众展示。

    伽利略的手指和牙齿被发现

    伽利略是意大利著名数学家、物理学家、天文学家和哲学家,近代实验科学的先驱者。1564,伽利略·伽利雷出生在意大利西海岸比萨城一个破落的贵族之家。1642年辞世,享年78岁。在1737年伽利略去世95年后的葬礼上,他的崇拜者从其遗体切割下三根手指和一段脊椎,并将下颚最后一颗牙齿取走。后来,伽利略的遗体被埋葬于佛罗伦萨的圣十字教堂,位于米开朗琪罗的墓地对面。不久之后,三根手指中的其中一根被收回,收藏于佛罗伦萨科学史博物馆里。脊椎则一直保存在帕多瓦大学,伽利略曾在那里任教多年。

    佛罗伦萨科学史博物馆馆长保罗·佳鲁兹(Paolo Galluzzi)表示,伽利略的那位崇拜者是一名意大利侯爵,他将伽利略的手指和牙齿保存在一个罐子里。两根手指分别来自伽利略的右手的拇指和中指,连同那一颗牙齿,后来被侯爵的后代收藏,并且代代相传。但随着时间的推移,后代人不知道罐子里所装的是何物,竟将其卖掉。有人声称在1905年最后看到过装有伽利略手指和牙齿的罐子,此后就消失得无影无踪。

    伽利略的手指和牙齿失踪100多年后,近期在一场拍卖会上“重又现身”并被一位私人收藏家购买,当时谁都不知道那是伽利略的遗骨。这名私人收藏家将其带到科学史博物馆,想查明罐内到底是什么东西。

    保罗·佳鲁兹说:“我非常好奇。1905年最后看到这一藏品的人曾进行过描述,为我们提供了罐子和所盛物品的翔实描述?!北B蕖ぜ崖匙缺硎?,那位私人收藏家带来的罐子同最后看到该藏品的人的描述“每一个细节都吻合”。

    由于购买伽利略手指的私人收藏家要求匿名,因此佛罗伦萨科学史博物馆不会透露售卖人和拍卖时间等信息。该博物馆从1927年就收藏有伽利略被割下的第三根手指,因此经过近三个世纪后,这位伟大科学家的手指得以“重逢”。该博物馆计划在2010年3月向公众展示伽利略的手指和牙齿。

    伽利略的科学发现,不仅在物理学史上而且在整个科学中上都占有极其重要的地位。1590年,伽利略在比萨斜塔上做了“两个铁球同时落地”的著名实验,从此推翻了亚里斯多德“物体下落速度和重量成比例”的学说,纠正了这个持续了1900年之久的错误结论。1609年,伽利略创制了天文望远镜(后被称为伽利略望远镜),并用来观测天体。1610年1月7日,伽利略发现了木星的四颗卫星,为哥白尼学说找到了确凿的证据。借助于望远镜,伽利略还先后发现了土星光环、太阳黑子、太阳的自转、金星和水星的盈亏现象、月球的周日和周月天平动,以及银河是由无数恒星组成等等。这些发现开辟了天文学的新时代。罗马教廷于1633年对伽利略进行了审判,原因是当时教会的权威人士认为“太阳围绕地球转”,而伽利略则支持哥白尼的“日心说”。在20世纪90年代初,罗马教会终于为伽利略冤案公开平反。为了纪念伽利略发明折射式望远镜400周年,联合国将2009年定为国际天文年。

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