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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    田单与火牛阵【图】

    时间:2019-08-14 08:15:50编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“田单与火牛阵【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    公元前284,燕昭王拜乐毅为上将军,联合秦、韩、赵、魏四国共同伐齐。出兵半载,乐毅接连攻克齐国七十多座城池,最后仅剩下了莒城和即墨两处。即墨守将出城迎战燕军,反倒丢了性命,军不可一日无帅,危急存亡之际,田齐宗室的远亲田单被推选为即墨的新将军。

    即墨,地处富庶的胶东,是齐国较大城邑,物资充裕、人口较多,具有一定防御条件。于是田单集结7000余士卒,加以整顿﹑扩充,并增修城垒,加强防务。他和军民同甘共苦,“坐则织蒉(编织草器),立则仗锸(执锹劳作)”(《资治通鉴》卷四,周赧王三十六年),亲自巡视城防;编妻妾﹑族人入行伍,尽散饮食给士卒,深得军民信任。乐毅久攻不下,改包围之策,而这即墨一围便是五年。

    战场上还未分出胜负,燕王宫却传出了噩耗。对乐毅有知遇之恩的燕昭王与公元前279年去世,太子乐资即位,即燕惠王。燕惠王从做太子的时候就对乐毅有所不满,于是田单派人入燕行离间计,诈称乐毅名为攻齐,实欲称王齐国,故意缓攻即墨,若燕国另派主将,即墨指日可下。对此早有猜忌的燕惠王听闻,便急召乐毅回国,又派亲信骑劫代替乐毅任上将军。

    乐毅被换,田单再无大患,于是开始准备最终的决战。他命人散布谣言说:“我只害怕燕军将所俘虏的齐国士兵割掉鼻子,并把他们放在燕军前面的行列来同齐军作战,即墨会因此而被攻了?!逼锝俪趵凑У?,对战局不甚了解,听了这番话,便信以为真,吩咐士兵如此照做。而城中齐人看见那些投降燕军的人都被割掉鼻子,愤怒之余,更坚定了坚守的决心。初见成效之后,田单故技重施,命人散布道:“我害怕燕军挖掘我们城外的坟墓,侮辱我们的祖先,当会为此感到痛心?!毖嗑终兆隽?,掘了齐人的坟墓,焚烧死尸。即墨人从城上望见,恨得咬牙切齿,纷纷向田单请求,誓与燕军决一死战。

    田单又进而麻痹燕军,命精壮甲士隐伏城内,用老弱﹑妇女登城守望。又派使者诈降,让即墨富豪持重金贿赂燕将,假称即墨将降,惟望保全妻小。围城已逾三年的燕军,急欲停战回乡,见大功将成,只等受降,更加懈怠。

    田单见反攻时机成熟,便集中千余头牛,角缚利刃,尾扎浸油芦苇,披五彩龙纹外衣,于一个夜间,下令点燃牛尾芦苇,牛负痛从城脚预挖的数十个信道狂奔燕营,五千精壮勇士紧随于后,城内军民擂鼓击器,呐喊助威。燕军见火光中无数角上有刀﹑身后冒火的怪物直冲而来,惊惶失措。齐军勇士乘势冲杀,城内军民紧跟助战,燕军夺路逃命,互相践踏,骑劫在混乱中被杀。田单率军乘胜追击,齐国民众也持械助战,很快将燕军逐出国境,尽复失地七十余城,这就是历史上著名的“火牛阵”。

    本文标签: 火牛 田单
    本文专题:

    下一篇:草人借箭【图】

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