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    大陆漂移学说的来源及提出【图】

    时间:2019-05-11 08:21:05编辑:zl001

    原标题:"大陆漂移学说的来源及提出【图】"的相关资料分享。 - 来源:历史啦- 编辑:coco!

    大陆漂移学说的来源及提出

    1620年英国人弗兰西斯·培根在他提出了西半球曾经与欧洲和非洲连接的可能性。1668年法国R.P.F.普拉赛认为在大洪水以前﹐美洲与地球的其他部分不是分开的。到19世纪末﹐奥地利地质学家修斯(EduardSuess,1831~1914)注意到南半球各大陆上的岩层非常一致,因而将它们拟合成一个单一大陆,称之为冈瓦纳古陆。1912年阿尔弗雷德·魏格纳正式提出了大陆漂移学说,并在1915年发表的《海陆的起源》一书中作了论证。由于当时不能更好地解释漂移的机制问题,曾受到地球物理学家的反对。

    大陆漂移学说

    大陆漂移学说

    魏格纳从小就喜欢幻想和冒险,童年时就喜爱读探险家的故事,英国著名探险家约翰·富兰克林成为他心目中崇拜的偶像。为了给将来探险做准备,他攻读气象学。1905年,25岁的魏格纳获得了气象学博士学位。1906年,他终于实现了少年时代的远大理想,加入了著名的丹麦探险队,来到了格陵兰岛,从事气象和冰川调查。

    1910年魏格纳在翻阅地图时,提出大胆的“大陆漂移”假说。1915年,魏格纳在《海陆的起源》一书中系统阐述了大陆漂移说,引起地质学界轩然大波。

    大陆漂移学说

    大陆漂移学说

    漂移假说

    地质学家和地球物理学家开始对大陆漂移假说进行认真的讨论是在A·魏格纳的著作出版以后。从所受的教育和个人职业看,魏格纳并不是一个地质学家,而是天文学家和气象学家(他的博士论文是天文学史方面的),魏格纳的学术生涯先是在马尔堡谋得了一个天文学和气象学的职位,后来在格兰兹获得了一个气象学和地球物理学教授的职务(1924~1930),在二、三十岁时,他一直在格陵兰进行气象考察。1930年,在第三次探险时,他献出了生命。按照曾与魏格纳一起进行第一次考察的劳格·科赫的说法,大陆漂移思想是魏格纳在观察海水中冰层的分解时形成的。但是魏格纳自己只是说,大约是在1910年的圣诞节期间,他突然被大西洋两边海岸极度的相似和吻合所震惊,而这一点启发他思考大陆横向运动的可能性。

    运动假说

    很明显,魏格纳当时并没有认真地看待这一思想,反而认为“这是不可能的”而放弃了(魏格纳1924,5;1962,1)。但他确实在第二年秋天开始建立他的大陆运动假说。他说他当时“相当偶然地”读到了“一篇描述非洲和巴西古生代地层动物相似性的文献摘要”(马文1973,66)。在这篇摘要中,大西洋两岸远古动物化石的相同或相似被用来证明当时非常流行的、非洲和巴西之间存在陆桥的说法。例如,蛇很显然不能渡过浩瀚的大西洋。因此,在南大西洋两岸发现同样的或十分相似的蛇化石,就证明很久以前的南美洲和非洲之间存在一条陆路通道的可能性是相当大的。如果换一种相反的解释,即假设在这两个地区的大部分土地上存在极其相似但又是相对独立的生物进化过程,而这是完全不可能的。

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