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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    孟子思想【图】

    时间:2019-10-04 08:08:56编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“孟子思想【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    孟子的思想著作流传甚广,影响深远,在中学语文课本就收录有孟子的文章,如《孟子·梁惠王上》等。孟子的学说主张是在继承孔子的主体思想基础上发展而来,主要包括实行仁政,以民为本等政治思想和人性本善的哲学思想。下面详述孟子的主要思想主张和相关的思想著作。

    孟子的主张是什么

    孟子分析了从古至今国家兴亡的经验教训,提出了一个在后代历史上的著名为政思想,就是“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻”。孟子认为国家之所以灭亡是因为统治者失去了民心,国君只要时刻牢记“民贵君轻”的治国理念,心怀百姓,把百姓的利益放在首位,那就可以国泰民安,国柞长久。

    孟子思想

    孟子像(网络图)

    孟子的仁政思想主要继承自孔子,严格的把社会的阶层分为统治阶级和被统治阶级。统治者劳心治人,主要负责治理天下,为民施政,要实行仁政,就像父母为孩子着想一样。平民百姓属于被统治阶级,负责生产劳作,他们应该像对待自己的父母一样拥戴爱护统治者。孟子的仁政思想主要是服务于统治阶级,维护统治阶级的合法性。

    孟子像孔子一样推崇有教无类。主张国家加强私塾教育教化天下万民,使百姓明人伦,晓人理。在这基础上,孟子提出了易子而教的方法,就是父母把自己的孩子交给其他的老师去教导。因为孟子认为父子之间的感情会使父亲对孩子不够严格,放松对孩子的教育。

    在哲学思想方面,孟子认为应该恢复上古时代的道德规范,即是“法先王”恢复尧舜之道。孟子认为人性本善,所以每一个人都能接受教育的熏陶,明理知节。

    孟子的主要思想著作

    孟子一生的思想学说著作而成《孟子》,是孟子晚年隐退邹国授徒时所作。在孟子逝世后,又经他的弟子门人增添完善?!睹献印酚爰锹伎鬃友孕兴枷氲摹堵塾铩吠寮已稻?,是后世研究孔孟之学的必备教科书。

    孟子思想

    孟子图片(网络图)

    《孟子》记载了孟子的哲学、民生、政治、教育等思想观点,还收录了孟子辩论讲学的典故和社会活动?!靶陨坡邸笔敲献铀枷胙档暮诵幕镜?,在此基础上向外拓展延伸出了“仁政”,“民贵君轻”等思想学说。

    《孟子》、《论语》和子思所著《中庸》,曾子所著《大学》被宋朝时期理学大师朱熹合称推崇为儒家四书。从宋朝开始,《孟子》的影响力从儒家扩散到民间,是为家治学的必备书籍;也是科举考试的来源内容之一。

    《孟子》一书总计三万五千余字,是四书中内容最丰富,篇幅最长,重量最重的一部儒家经典。因为历史战乱,时间久远保存不善,还有历史上的多次焚书之举,《孟子》现今流传下来的只有七篇十四卷。

    孟子的思想主张上承孔子下启荀子,为儒家思想在战国时期的传播发挥了突出贡献。他晚年广收弟子教化天下并著《孟子》宣扬自己的儒家思想,《孟子》一书历经岁月仅保留下来完整的七篇为我们后人瞻仰。

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