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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局【图】

    时间:2019-10-04 08:08:37编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    吴起是战国时期著名军事家、改革家,他一生曾效力鲁、魏、楚三国,而且在军事和内政上都有极大成就。吴起曾在魏国建立武卒制,还在楚国实行吴起变法,对外也曾率军拿下秦国河西之地。楚国能够逐渐强盛起来,也正是因为实行了吴起变法,不过这套变法的寿命却只存在了短短几年就被废除。因为楚悼王去世后,楚国旧贵族对吴起发动了抵制,导致吴起被杀,变法也以失败告终。

    吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局

    战国被严重低估的一个人,到哪国哪国强,其组建的“魏武卒”曾险些覆灭秦国,此人便是战国初期兵家的代表人物、著有《吴子兵法》、并与兵圣孙武并称“孙吴”的吴起。

    吴起同时也是战国最有争议的人物之一,被许多人所不喜,主要与他年轻时“杀妻求将、母死不葬”等令人诟病的事情有很大的关系。尽管如此,还是无法掩盖他“文能比肩商鞅,武能媲美白起”的事实。

    吴起是卫国人,出生在一个“家累万金”的富有家庭,由于不甘平凡,吴起年轻时四处游历,散尽家财只为谋求一官半职,最终却一无所获,还落了个倾家荡产。

    吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局

    在卫国不得志的吴起辗转来到了鲁国发展。公元前412年,齐国攻打鲁国,鲁穆公任用吴起为将,并最终以少胜多,击败了强大的齐军,从而使得国力渐衰的鲁国威势大涨,震慑了周边的宋、越等国。

    但好景不长,由于鲁国内部的倾轧,吴起受到了排挤,再加上鲁穆公也对他心生怀疑,被免去了官职,在别人的劝说之下,吴起离开鲁国,投奔了魏国。

    吴起来到魏国后受到了魏文侯的重用。公元前409年,魏文侯任命吴起为主将,先后攻下临晋、元里、洛阴、郃阳等五城,完全占据河西之地。随后,魏国在此设立河西郡,吴起任首任郡守。

    吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局

    吴起镇守河西时,改革兵制,并训练了一支战力冠绝天下的特种军队——“魏武卒”。公元前389年,秦惠公举全国之力,出兵50万攻打魏国的阴晋,吴起亲率没有立过军功的5万魏武卒,外加500战车和3000骑兵大败秦军。此战之后,秦国内忧外患,险些覆灭。

    两年后,吴起又率军讨伐齐国,一直打到灵丘,魏国也因此成为了当时独一无二的霸主。魏武侯继位不久后,吴起受到了魏相公叔痤的排挤,不得已离开了魏国,投奔楚国。

    吴起变法为什么会失败?吴起不死或将改变战国格局

    当时,楚国的处境并不是很好,外有魏国压制,内有旧贵族瓜分君权。吴起投奔楚国后,楚悼王便任命他为宛城太守,一年后升任令尹,全面负责楚国的“变法图强”。

    通过变法,楚国的实力得到了一定的增长,向南平定百越诸族,向东吞并陈、蔡两国,向北击退三晋之兵。吴起的变法虽然使楚国强大了起来,但却招致了楚国旧贵族的怨恨,由此为自己埋下了杀身之祸。

    公元前381年,楚悼王去世后,楚国旧贵族趁机发动兵变,攻打失去了庇护的吴起,并将其乱箭射死,其尸身还被处以了车裂肢解之刑,吴起变法宣告失败。值得一提的是,从内容上来看,吴起的变法与商鞅的变法是一致,但却比商鞅早了二十几年,他若不死,战国的历史是否会因此而发生改变呢?

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