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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    尼布楚条约【图】

    时间:2019-10-04 08:08:41编辑:zl001

    历史啦网导读:小编将“尼布楚条约【图】”的相关内容都整理在以下内容中!

    《尼布楚条约》是中国签订的第一个边境条约,条约承认黑龙江和乌苏里江流域包括库页岛在内的广大地区是中国领土,客观上遏止了沙俄继续向东扩张。清政府获得雅克萨之战胜利后,为了和平发展虽做出了巨大的让步,但该条约在一定程度上维护了中国领土主权完整。

    俄方通常认为尼布楚条约不利于俄国,对俄而言是不平等条约,而认为后来的《瑷珲条约》和《北京条约》是对俄真正平等的条约。中国则认为《尼布楚条约》是平等条约,清史专家戴逸先生说:“《尼布楚条约》保障了中国东北边境一百多年的安定和平,为清王朝后来平定西北、西南地区的叛乱提供了稳定富饶的大后方,对于清朝的发展和繁荣、康乾盛世局面的出现,具有非常关键的作用和非常重要的历史意义?!钡衷谝灿腥巳衔赌岵汲踉肌返贾轮泄钊昧送恋?,因此是不平等条约。

    尼布楚条约的真相以及其背后引发的思考

    尼布楚条约

    如果说《尼布楚条约》割地了,那前提至少是俄国所得之地之前就是清朝领土,而尼布楚地区虽在以前为蒙古茂明安部落的游牧地,但茂明安部落早在后金时已经内迁归附,离开了尼布楚,当时尼布楚地区游牧的是蒙古布里特亚部落,他们并不属于清朝,清朝也未对这一地区实行有效统治,因此谈不上清朝割让了本国领土给俄国,其实质只是一块无主地的归属问题。而且《尼布楚条约》签订时,喀尔喀蒙古也不属于清朝。

    现代中国历史教科书上都宣称黑龙江流域“自古以来都是中国领土不可分割的一部分”,最有力的证明之一即明朝在这一带设立的奴尔干都司。这是现代民族国家以现时观念回放历史的常有错误,当然这在政治上是有用的:因为坚持领土原则的办法之一,就是硬说边界早已存在、该区一贯属于本国。事实是,虽然在名义上,奴尔干都司所辖地方属于明朝,但实际上,明朝对这一广阔区域从未实施过有效的行政管理。明朝在东北的实际边界局限在辽东一线。

    历史的特点是我们经?!按雍笸岸痢?,也就是以后起的概念衡量、判断早先的史事,并予以重新组织、诠释。古代中国并没有一个“领土国家”的观念,即将国家统辖范围设想为一个完整而不可分割的疆土,国家对人民进行直接行政管理,中间不存在任何统治者;国家与他国具有清晰的、不可侵犯的边界线。中国自周代以来对疆域的认识是同心圆式的所谓“五服”,最外围的地域是从来不进行直接行政管辖的,而实行羁縻政策。羁縻并非有效占领,也不充分行使管辖权,中央仅满足于边疆部落的象征性臣服,就对当地不施加任何政治压力,所谓“一切政治,悉因其俗”(《清圣祖实录》),达到“不改其本国之俗而属于汉”。这种臣属今天常被理解为一种“有限度自治”,但实际上却跟不统治没什么差别。

    这种观念不是领土国家,而更接近于“势力范围”。只要进贡、表示臣服,中央就不会干预,同时理解为这是对自己统辖权的默认。假如当地部落不危及边境局势,一般中央对这种松散的联系也毫不在意。

    明朝的统治带有强烈的汉人政治的色彩,在力所不能企及的非汉人居住区,决不努力建立直接的统治。朱元璋认为东北“土地早寒,土旷人稀,不欲建置劳民”,元明都是在辽河流域实行与内地类似的郡县制,辽东以北不理民政,只设卫所,卫所长官均是女真部落酋长,以安抚羁縻,这实际上是一种不充分的宗主权。羁縻的主要出发点是使之不致危害边境,并非主动管理,而是被动的安抚措施,也因此,明设置奴儿干都司后不久就撤消了该机构,放弃羁縻关系,女真部落乃兴起,威胁辽东边关。 历代对中原王朝直接民政管理之外的边疆地区,都只是相隔很久才采取一些断断续续的行动,以确保其相对的依附和服从状态。

    所以事实上《尼布楚条约》是清朝与俄罗斯为争夺无主之地、划定两国边界、安定边疆居民而签订的条约,所以,康熙帝割地之说也就属无稽之谈。

    尼布楚条约的真相以及其背后引发的思考

    《尼布楚条约》中国是作出一些让步,但这不是什么“出卖”,要知道中国不是康熙皇帝,可能连包头,乌鲁木齐,拉萨都是别人的,更不用痴心妄想什么尼布楚了。另外,当时清朝先后平定三藩之乱,收复台湾,正处于开创盛世的前沿,而当时对清朝威胁最大的不是俄国而是准葛尔的葛尔丹,而葛尔丹的背后支持者就是俄国。因此稳定俄国对平定葛尔丹有决定性作用。

    从当时的情况来说,康熙的决定是有道理的,塞外苦寒之地,又无甚可用处,派兵占据糜费钱粮,何苦。既然已经战而胜之,不如趁势缔结和约,从后果来看,东北因此避免战祸达百年之久。要知道,康熙年间的人,并没有现代人那么完整的主权意识。

    事实是:在遇到清朝之前,俄国在北亚的领土扩张,可谓相当迅速,毫无阻力,一直扩张到了黑龙江(阿穆尔河)南岸。而清朝与俄国签订了《尼布楚条约》之后,彻底终结了俄国在北亚扩张的第一阶段。即使清朝末年,丧权辱国,可是,直到清朝灭亡,清朝也保住了阿穆尔河(黑龙江)南岸的绝大多数领土。由此可见《尼布楚条约》的积极意义。

    本文标签: 尼布楚 条约
    本文专题:

    下一篇:亡秦必楚【图】

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