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    欢迎访问历史啦!微信公众号

    雍正皇帝利用军机处实现高效办公 以一人治天下【图】

    时间:2019-05-07 08:44:14编辑:zl001

    原标题:"雍正皇帝利用军机处实现高效办公 以一人治天下【图】"的相关资料分享。 - 来源:历史啦- 编辑:coco!

    原文配图:雍正手书的对联:惟以一人治天下,岂为天下奉一人。 原文配图:雍正手书的对联:惟以一人治天下,岂为天下奉一人。

    紫禁城的乾清宫广场西侧,靠近隆宗门,有一排简陋的平房。与金碧辉煌的宫殿相比,它颇显寒酸,游客们也大多会忽略它。然而,别看它不起眼,它却是大清帝国一百八十余年的决策中枢――军机处。

      

    军机处的设立起因于一场战争

      军机处为清朝独有,首创者乃雍正帝。雍正为何要设立这么一个机构?根本原因是想有效发挥君主集权的优势,有此动念的起因是一场发生在帝国西北边陲的战争。

      事情起于雍正二年(1724年),青海和硕特蒙古首领罗卜藏丹津叛乱,被年羹尧、岳钟琪荡平。罗卜藏丹津逃亡准噶尔。准噶尔是清廷的老对手了,康熙皇帝披挂上阵,三次亲征准噶尔。雍正四年,内政整肃完毕,皇帝准备对准噶尔用兵。

      雍正七年,战争爆发。军情如火,需立即处理,且必须保守秘密。但当时的政治机构却不尽如人意。清承明制,以内阁为国家行政中心。内阁设于紫禁城太和门外的文渊阁附近,而雍正皇帝在养心殿处理政务、就寝,两者相距一千余米。宫禁重重,手续繁多的处理流程,极易延误时机;而军报到京,先经内阁,也容易泄露机密。于是雍正以需要一个密近的处理机关为借口,在隆宗门一带的墙根搭建了一排平房,始称军需房,后改称军机房,又改称军机处,遴选心腹允祥、张廷玉、蒋廷锡三人秘密办理军务。

      打开故宫地图就能发现,隆宗门位于乾清门广场以西,正北面就是雍正皇帝的寝宫――养心殿,两者相距不足五十米。一千米到五十米,从内阁到军机处,距离的缩短意味着政务处理的快捷,也意味着权力向皇帝集中。

      军机处的房子,和宫墙之间有两米空隙。据说这里曾有一条通往养心殿的专用通道。这条路穿过宫墙,经过御膳房,直达养心殿。如今御膳房的宫墙依然留有通道的痕迹。心急的雍正皇帝将军务处理中心迁到自己附近还不够,还要凿出一条便捷往来的孔道。雍正的亟亟求治之心,乾纲独断之望,显露无遗。

      

    军机处如何高效办公?

      西北战事结束后,雍正并未撤销军机处,反而在第二年增设办理文书事务的“小军机”――军机章京;雍正九年,又铸军机处印信,储于大内。一个临时机构,为何能存在如此之久,影响如此之大?因为皇帝藉着军机处,掌握了“乾纲独断”的技术,破解了集权统治的难题。

      军机处创设之后,早先的议政王大臣会议徒具虚名,议政王大臣成为了虚衔,无应办之事,有名而无实,在乾隆年间最终被裁撤。南书房虽仍为翰林入值之所,但已不参预政务,主要负责文词书画。

      养心殿的西暖阁,是雍正皇帝处理政务,批阅奏章的地方。墙壁上悬挂着一副雍正手书的对联,十分醒目:惟以一人治天下,岂为天下奉一人?;实鄄患友谑蔚乇泶锪怂约ǖ目释?。那么,他又是如何做到的呢?

      秘密在于军机处的三个字:“勤”、“速”、“密”。雍正追求高效。军机处甫一成立,雍正皇帝就规定,不管有多少公文,必须在当天完成。即便一天的奏折多达几百件,也必须连夜处理完毕?;实廴绱搜细褚?,军机大臣的工作就很辛苦了。凌晨3点,紫禁城内一片漆黑,唯有军机处值庐中灯火通明。不过,最辛苦的人不是军机大臣,而是负责撰拟谕旨和管理档案的军机章京。军机处成立后,权责日重。举凡政治、军事、经济、外交事务,莫不经过军机处,单凭几个军机大臣已经处理不过来了。于是军机处成立的第二年,就增设军机章京。起初军机章京无定额,从内阁中书、笔贴式等官员中选调。嘉庆四年(1799年)起,定军机章京满汉各十六人,分为满汉各两班。每班的领头称为“达拉密”,由他领着章京们在军机处值班。通常情况下,满汉章京轮流值日,每班值两日。即便是大年初一,军机处也要当差入值。

      军机处最强调效率与速度。军机大臣的工作流程,生动地描绘了这里的“速度与激情”:军机大臣入值后,约莫五六点钟,天刚蒙蒙亮,就要去养心殿面见皇帝,聆听皇帝对政务的处理意见,这叫“承旨”?;实墼谡餮蟪级哉竦囊饧笙麓镏甘?,军机大臣就会急匆匆赶回五十米以外的军机处,将皇帝的意思“述旨”给军机章京,章京们走笔如飞,执笔“拟旨”。军机大臣拿着拟好的谕旨,再赶回养心殿报皇帝批准。一来一去,不过一个时辰,许多政务就处理完了。

      军机大臣是跪着“承旨”的。久跪辛苦,大臣们总结了一些小窍门。比如说他们会在膝盖处用圆夹布中置棉絮为衬里,这样跪着就不疼了。为了免除终日长跪,军机大臣们还练就了简明扼要的本事:无论事情多复杂,一定在三句话内讲完,免得皇帝再问?;实叟姆夂煤?,就会加盖军机处大印,并写明驿递日行里数,交给兵部发驿马传递,或每日行四五百里,或六百里加急,飞奔的骏马带着皇帝的批文,在帝国的驿道上川流不息。凭着这套交通系统,中央集权的触角伸向帝国各方。

      “密”,是军机处的最大特点。军机处成立后,雍正三令五申地告诫属下“臣不密则失身”的道理,并规定军机处外面由护军把守,上至王公大臣、下至太监宫女,都严禁私入。甚至服务人员,也规定必须是十五岁以下不识字的小太监,称为“小么童”。15岁之后,就立刻换新人。而占军机处文书大头的“廷寄”,与文武大臣向皇帝呈递的“奏折”,更是改变了古代中国长期以来的公文惯例。

      今天,“上朝批折子”是人们对皇帝工作的主要印象。孰知,清代之前的皇帝,是“不批折子”的。奏章摆在皇帝案头,需经过复杂的流程。以明朝为例,当时地方各省及中央各部的上行公文,若有关公事的,叫“题本”;有关私事的,叫“奏本”。这些“本”首先要汇总到相当于国务院办公厅的通政使司,然后交给内阁。内阁先“票拟”附上处理意见,与奏本一同送达皇帝审批?;实塾弥毂市聪乱饧笤俜⒏诟笾葱?,这叫“批红”。

      明朝中叶后,皇帝对政务懈怠,往往将“批红”权力交予司礼监,让首席秉笔太监按照皇帝的意思作“朱批”。明朝这套政务处理流程,虽然开了太监参与朝政的后门,也对皇权形成了制约。因为内阁首先阅览奏章,在皇帝过目之前,就拟定了意见。即便皇帝驳回了内阁的“票拟”,也会想法子补救。慢慢地,内阁首辅变成事实上的宰相。如果他与首席秉笔太监关系密切,且皇帝年纪幼小,那么决策权就掌握在内阁首辅手中。例如万历年间的张居正,属下官员上“奏本”,内阁依张居正的意思“票拟”,政治盟友冯??刂频乃纠窦嘣?ldquo;批红”,“万历新政”就这样雷厉风行地推行开了。

      为了避免自己被内阁蒙蔽,康熙中期发明了奏折制度――皇帝亲信秘密地直接呈递报告,皇帝通过秘密报告,掌控全局。奏折绕过了内阁,这保证皇帝不受干扰地贯彻自己的意志,实现权力集于君主一身。

      雍正完善了奏折制度。他不仅将有权写折之人扩展至大学士、各省督抚、藩、臬、提、镇,也在保密措施上下足了功夫。首先,密折均直达御前,中间不经过任何人转手;而且密折只能由皇帝一个人批阅,即便是军机大臣也不能过目。

      大臣与皇帝之间的密折与朱批,由特制匣子传递。大臣与皇帝一人一把钥匙,除此之外,没有人能够打开匣子。即便如此,雍正还要谆谆叮嘱臣下不要泄露密折内容。鄂尔泰是雍正最信任的宠臣之一,雍正在给鄂尔泰的侄子鄂昌奏折的朱批中告诫他,“不可令一人知之,即汝叔鄂尔泰亦不必令知”。就是朱批过的奏折,雍正依然不放松,还下旨要求具奏人在一定时间内交回宫中保存,本人也不得抄录留底,否则严惩不贷。

      那么,朱批后的奏折是如何到达具奏人手中的呢?靠军机处。军机处收到朱批奏折后,先由军机章京将奏折连同朱批誊写一遍,加以保存;原件则密封装好,直接传给上折大臣。有些折子,皇帝当天没有考虑周全,就“留中”不发;另一些极为机密的,只录“另有旨”,连副本也不保存。

      

    雍正:清帝中的勤政楷模

      雍正借着军机处“以一人治天下”,同时也将重担放在肩头。清朝皇帝普遍勤政,而雍正是其中最突出的。雍正四年五月,皇帝在上谕中感慨地说道,皇考每日上朝,已经是勤政的楷模了;而朕,每天从清晨工作到深夜,又有过之。白天,雍正帝接见大小官员,披览章奏;晚上在青灯下,还要阅读各地的密折,多至二三十件。

      据统计,雍正当政十三年,至少批阅过奏折两万两千余件,题本十九万余件,写下了千余万字的批语。与康熙和乾隆皇帝不同,雍正从未南巡锦绣江南围猎木兰围场。除了生日放假一天外,他就是一架工作机器。君主集权的背后就是放弃休息、勤于政事。雍正十三年八月二十三日,皇帝暴死于圆明园,大位传给宝亲王弘历,新帝年号乾隆。在乾隆皇帝时,军机处彻底成了皇帝的左右手,军机大臣彻底成了皇帝的高级秘书。

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